Zero-rate loan: what mortgage credit insurance?

 

Extended until the end of the year, the Zero Rate Loan (PTZ) is a complementary credit to your main loan. Indeed, it finances up to 40% of the real estate transaction. This subsidized loan is granted according to the household’s income (year N-2), its composition and the location of the property (new or old with work).

The rate of this loan is 0%, that is, the borrower will not reimburse interest to the bank. However, the PTZ, like the main mortgage, must be insured. In fact, in the event of illness, accident or death, the loaned funds must be repaid. Home loan insurance protects the borrower in this eventuality.

What guarantees for the insurance of the loan at zero rate?

What guarantees for the insurance of the loan at zero rate?

The borrower insurance insures the risks of death, total and irreversible loss of autonomy (PTIA), disability and incapacity to work. The job loss guarantee is optional. The amount of the contributions varies according to the profile of the borrower and the level of cover subscribed.

PTZ insurance is generally offered with the same guarantees as the main loan. However, the borrower has the option of choosing a home loan insurance other than that offered by the bank. Thus, the overall effective annual rate of the PTZ (TAEG) is not 0% but depends on the insurance rate of the latter.

The Aeras convention to Insure and Borrow with an Aggravated Health Risk

The Aeras convention to Insure and Borrow with an Aggravated Health Risk

People with a health problem can benefit from the Aeras convention. This facilitates access to mortgage for people suffering or having suffered from an illness. In the event that the insurer cannot offer insurance at a standard rate due to the insured’s medical history, the Aeras agreement may be entered.

Note that in the case of a PTZ, “for borrowers under 35 years of age, the relative insurance premiums are fully covered by banking and insurance professionals since September 1, 2011, subject to conditions resources, ” says the Ministry of Housing and Sustainable Housing.

A new measure regarding the termination of home loan insurance

A new measure regarding the termination of home loan insurance

The Hamon law gives the borrower the freedom to change mortgage insurance the first year of subscription. The only condition is to present a contract with the same guarantees as that of the bank.

An amendment has also just been adopted by Parliament for the annual termination of borrower insurance. Proposed by Senator PS Martial Bourquin, it should enter into force for all credit insurance contracts from 2018.

A new measure deemed “very risky ” by the monitoring and proposals committee of the Aeras convention. ” The consequences of excessive demutualization of borrower insurance will be to the detriment of the social categories of first-time home buyers in terms of income, age or health”.

Find the best loan insurance, it’s easy and free!

Loan despite credit bureau with immediate approval

There are many reasons that may require a loan, and usually this shouldn’t be a problem. In the case of a loan with immediate approval, the processing time is very short, which means that the money is paid out within a short time, which is particularly advantageous in the case of important financial bottlenecks.

However, if Credit Bureau has saved a negative entry, it is often not so easy to get a loan despite Credit Bureau with an immediate commitment. But this does not mean that there are no opportunities, because with some conditions the loan approval is still possible.

Requirements for a loan despite Credit Bureau – proof of income and co-applicant

Requirements for a loan despite Credit Bureau - proof of income and co-applicant

A loan despite Credit Bureau with immediate approval is subject to some conditions, as is the case with a regular loan. An important prerequisite for credit approval is proof of regular income from work. Ideally, the employment contract has been in place for at least six months.

Another way to get a loan despite Credit Bureau is a co-applicant or a guarantor. These fulfill several functions. On the one hand there is a positive Credit Bureau and on the other hand this additional income offers additional security so that the loan can be approved more quickly. The risk of a loan default is thus greatly reduced for the bank, because the co-applicant or guarantor undertakes to pay the installments in the event of payment difficulties on the part of the borrower.

Foreign loan loan despite Credit Bureau with immediate approval

Foreign loan loan despite Credit Bureau with immediate approval

If no co-applicant is available, there is still the option to contact a bank based abroad for borrowing. These banks are often not interested in Credit Bureau, instead they rely on other collateral and often lend to customers even in difficult cases. In some cases, the loan amount is limited to minimize the risk of default. As with all other loans, repayment is made in monthly installments and at a contractually agreed interest rate.

Comparison of providers is advisable

Comparison of providers is advisable

Since the conditions differ between providers considerably, it is important that the numerous providers and their conditions are thoroughly compared. Even if the approval of a loan is difficult at first, despite Credit Bureau with immediate approval, this is definitely recommended, because it can save enormous costs. It is strongly advised not to choose the first best loan.

Bad credit car loans Los Angeles -Request a car loan with bad credit score now

If you have a bad credit score, you might be worried about the possibility of finding a car loan with favorable terms. Getting a car loan with bad credit can be a tricky business. Some lenders may only consider you for subprime auto loans, which often have less favorable terms and higher monthly payments.

But do not lose heart. Even if your credit score needs work, you can still find a car loan that does not break your monthly budget. And making consistent payments for a car loan is a great way to repair the credit.

Request a car loan with bad credit score now

Unfortunately, if you have bad credit, it can be harder to get a car loan. You can face less favorable conditions or even predatory lending practices.

The good news is that you may get a car loan with bad credit score at https://wowloans.net/. You will find a loan with favorable conditions.

Here are nine tips for getting a car loan with bad credit.

1. Know your credit score

Before you start the buying process, it is important that you know your credit score. On Bowman, you can get your credit report and credit score for free, as well as find out more about the factors behind your score.

There may be factors you can deal with immediately, such as overdue payments. Taking steps to fix your credit score before you start shopping can help you find a more favorable position with some lenders.

2. Research, research research

It is important that you prepare as much as possible so you do not get caught off guard when it comes time to negotiate.

The research should include key terms, such as the annual percentage rate (APR), which refers to the annual interest rate of a loan. If you are buying used vehicles, it is also useful to know the Kelley Blue Book value of your favorite car.

Our car loan resource page offers a wide variety of articles, questionnaires, and calculators, all designed to help you make a more informed purchase.

3. Go around

Once you have started the buying process, do not limit yourself to one lender. There are a variety of lenders who offer car loans for bad credit. And they may want to compete for your business.

Even two candidates with the same credit score may not be the same in the eyes of a lender, says John Michael Vinson, a lawyer at the National Consumer Law Center. “Even if your score is tarnished, you may have more chances than someone with the same score and no credit history,” he says.

Do not hang around – lenders do a credit check during the application process. Strict credit checks tell credit reporting agencies that a borrower is about to get into more debt and may lower your credit score. Lengthen the process too long and it may become more difficult to negotiate favorable terms.

For security reasons, we recommend visiting three different lenders over a 14-day period.

4. Pre-qualify with banks and credit unions

“Even if you do not think you can get a loan, go to your bank, go to your credit union first,” says Michael Vinson. One of the most powerful bargaining tools may be the pre-qualification for a loan from a bank or credit union.

If you have bad credit, it can be difficult to pre-qualify for a car loan with bad credit from a bank. Banks are for-profit organizations and generally, have more restrictive lending terms. But if you have a relationship with your bank, you may be more likely to find a manageable auto loan.

Credit unions are non-profit organizations generally owned by their members. As a result, they may be more willing to lend to a borrower with bad credit. Caisses Populaires require their account holders to be members, but membership requirements can be easily met.

5. Make sure the conditions are final

If you are financing through a dealer, always make sure the terms are final before signing. Otherwise, you may be faced with higher monthly payments or a larger down payment.

This is called a “yo-yo scam”. Dealers inform car buyers that their financing is incomplete and that they must accept a higher interest rate.

6. Avoid subprime lenders

Subprime lenders may seem like a safe bet for those who are wondering how to get a car loan with bad credit. These lenders generally cater to customers with lower credit ratings and can make the process of buying a car easy and stress-free at first.

Subprime auto loans can have extremely high-interest rates and are not likely to help you improve your credit score. Many risky loans also use your vehicle as collateral. So if you do not pay, you risk losing your car.

Always do your research beforehand and consider the lenders at risk only if you are unable to find another financing option.

7. Terms of the shop loan, no monthly payments

Lower monthly payments look good on paper and are generally used to attract buyers. In reality, they can cause you to pay more for your car for the duration of the loan. Since bad credit car loans can result in higher APRs, you may have to pay more than the total value of the car at the end of the loan.

When shopping, look for the most favorable conditions – usually the lowest APR on the shortest period. In this way, you will have monthly payments that are easier to manage with reasonable interest rates. If you are unable to find a low APR, you may want to consider buying a different vehicle.

8. Bring a friend with you – and consider a co-signer

Ask a friend or family member to accompany you, says Wilber Bartlett. Bringing a trustworthy person to the bargaining table can help inspire confidence. And trust, combined with know-how, can lead to more favorable loan conditions.

If you really trust this person, consider asking him to be a co-signer. The co-signers largely reduce the risks for the lenders: they will become responsible for the loan if you do not respect your payments. Adding a co-signer can be a powerful bargaining tool and generally results in a lower interest rate.

Be absolutely sure you can make payments before hiring a co-signer. If you can not make payments and the debt falls on them, it can permanently damage your personal relationship

Distance Learning Credit

The term distance learning stands for two different forms of training and further education. It can refer to a regular university course that does not take place in face-to-face classes. The classic university for corresponding courses is the Fernuniversität Hagen. For some years now, an increasing number of state and private universities have also been offering some of their courses as distance learning courses.

Furthermore, distance learning can mean a further training measure or an apprenticeship at a distance learning school. This is not a conventional course of study, even if the name of the distance learning courses has become established as distance learning. Common to both forms of education is that the lessons take place predominantly at home by the participants working on materials. This offers a largely flexible organization of the learning time, restrictions exist in some of the courses due to agreed chat times.

In addition, most courses and almost all distance learning courses at universities, including the Hagen University, are associated with a small number of attendance days. In many cases, participants in distance learning courses, as well as graduates of distance learning courses for vocational training, need credit for distance learning, although the options for borrowing differ in some cases.

Best Bank loan and comparable offers

KfW loan and comparable offers

Best Bank credit is available for distance learning at a university including the Hagen distance learning university. The Förderkreditanstalt grants the student loan during your studies and at the same time offers additional final funding so that distance students can concentrate fully on their studies in the last semesters of their university education. In addition to studying, Best Bank Bank finances master’s training through an inexpensive development loan. In both cases, attending a recognized university or master school is a prerequisite for granting credit. In contrast, the promotional bank makes almost no demands on the creditworthiness of the borrower when it comes to student and master financing.

It does not ask for current income or existing assets and, when evaluating the Credit Bureau request, only ensures that no personal bankruptcy has been entered. The cash payment is not made in a single sum but in monthly installments. In this way, the continuing study participant receives a regular income during his distance learning. The loan will only be repaid after the end of the course, although special repayments are possible.

A few credit banks offer similar offers to Best Bank Bank, although they usually place higher demands on credit security. The amount of promotional loans is limited and is not sufficient to finance distance learning alone. In contrast to the BAföG, they are awarded independently of other income, so that receiving support loans does not restrict your part-time work alongside distance learning.

Regular bank loans for distance learning

Regular bank loans for distance learning

A regular loan is only partially suitable for distance learning because the repayment begins during the study period. Many distance learning students continue to work with a limited number of hours. Provided that they achieve sufficient income for lending according to the household bill, there is nothing in the way of borrowing. In other cases, it is advisable to apply for a loan for a distance learning course together with another applicant.

Distance learning students at various banks are easily granted a disposition credit, as these give all students an initial credit line. Anyone who has already worked will even keep the amount of the previously granted overdraft facility at some of the financial institutions, as they do not carry out regular checks. An overdraft over and above the granted limit must, however, be avoided, as this usually triggers an examination of the credit line. Even credit cards with a standard credit line are available for students, including distance learning students, especially since some issuers have focused on this target group.

Alternatives to bank credit for distance learning

Alternatives to bank credit for distance learning

Those who are already working ask their employer for a credit for distance learning. An employer loan is possible for further training at a recognized university as well as for distance learning courses at distance schools. In return, the recipient undertakes not to give notice after a certain period of time. Distance learning students have the greatest chances of getting a loan from the boss, who do not leave their job during their further education, but only reduce the number of hours. Private universities and distance learning schools do not grant loans for the cost of living during distance learning, but often offer payment in installments of the tuition and course fees incurred.

In this way, the tense financial situation can at least be improved somewhat. Platforms for personal loan brokerage also offer a sensible way of applying for a loan for distance learning. The lenders registered there accept requests from correspondence students for social reasons, precisely because they find it difficult to obtain a loan from conventional banks. In addition to his financial situation, the applicant describes the chosen course of study because many private lenders base their decisions on the purpose of the loan and whether they want to support it.

Was your car stolen? This is what you have to do!

Can you imagine it? You go out one day to see your car and oh surprise !: No! For those who have been through this it has been a bleak experience. And it is that a car is a good that is acquired with effort. This is worse when they take it out through a vehicle loan and have to continue paying the debt even if they no longer have the vehicle. Paying a debt when you don’t have the good can be avoided if you have insurance. In this note I show you what to do if your car is stolen .

Report the theft

money coins

You don’t feel to cry for the lost! It’s time to take quick action so go to the police to report the theft of your car . According to a report from the Ministry of Interior, in the first months of 2018 they have been able to recover more than 1260 stolen cars, so you have more chances to recover yours if there is a complaint in time of the fact.

The Sunarp will allow you to record the theft record. This is important because whoever is going to buy your stolen car can find out what is a property acquired through theft and decline the purchase or report the seller. Don’t forget to eliminate the theft annotation if you managed to recover your car!

Stay alert for recovered cars. As I told you in point 1, the police have managed to recover many vehicles in record time. Sometimes because time has passed, or because the data of the owners are not updated, they fail to communicate with the owners. Therefore, I advise you to always be alert of the cars recovered by the PNP. I leave here the list where you can see those who have already been rescued from the hands of thieves.

Tips to prevent being robbed

money cash

Nobody wants the savings invested in a car to go to market. That is why I advise you to avoid parking theft in dangerous areas. Public roads are NOT the best place to park a car for a long time, so it’s best to leave them in garages or secure parking places.

These are the steps you have to follow if your car was stolen. To prevent your finances shaking from the theft of your vehicle it is always better to take out vehicle insurance . A vehicle insurance is an investment that must leave your personal budget and that will allow you to be calm if the car theft should happen to you. There are even insurances that you return a car with the same characteristics of the stolen. Have you already bought your vehicle insurance? Which one do you recommend?

 

Credit despite attachment

 

A garnishment is carried out if the attached person has not fulfilled his obligations. However, this has been preceded by many reminders and an enforcement order. So you can confidently say that the attachment is the last instrument of the creditors.

Many people feverishly think about how they can still raise the money required to dissolve the attachment. As a rule, they do not have the money at their own disposal, otherwise they would certainly not have made it this far. The money must therefore be borrowed. And that is through a loan despite attachment.

A difficult undertaking

A difficult undertaking

Since the attachment is always noted with Credit Bureau, it is extremely difficult or impossible to take out a loan from a “normal” bank despite the attachment. Rather, in such a case, one has to contact private donors that can be found on the Internet. In order to find the right provider here, it should first be clarified where and what was seized. If the bailiff has seized something at home, it is less relevant than a garnishment. If the wages are seized, this can also be seen on the proof of income that must be presented with every loan application. And that makes the application even more difficult.

Ask for a loan

Ask for a loan

With a seizure in your own four walls, you can get a loan from many lenders despite the seizure and without Credit Bureau. Foreign banks will also have no problem with this, as the proof of income shows that money is regularly collected.

In the case of a garnishment of wages, on the other hand, you have to search a little longer and should not fall for dubious mediators. It is important that you generally do not make any advance payments. After all, you need money and don’t want to spend any. You should also look for a guarantor who additionally secures the borrowing. No lender will also reject valuables that can be offered as security.

So it is difficult to get a loan in such a situation. But if you optimize the requirements a little, a way will be found that can then help to avert the unpleasant attachment.

Why not buy a car on the first visit? 3 reasons to take into account

As much as the desire to move aboard your own car is irresistible, it is necessary to be patient when it comes to making such an important purchase. Many people are victims of emotion, get carried away by the pressure of sellers, and end up accepting a vehicle on their first visit to the dealership, despite not being 100% convinced or having tried different options.

Sellers are very skilled people and will seek to convince you not to leave the store without having given an advance or made any kind of deal; However, it is shown that the more information you gather and the more patience you take to make the purchase, the more satisfied you will be.

Do you want to know why you should not buy your car on the first visit? These are the three main reasons:

 

It will allow you to inform yourself without pressure

You can try different cars and see how comfortable you feel

By telling the seller that he will not buy the car at that time, he will get rid of the pressure they can exert to leave a guarantee or close the deal. Just get the information on different models and once you finish with a dealer, go to the next one and check what another brand offers you. At the end of the day, you can compare the information and see which one best met your expectations.

 

You can try different cars and see how comfortable you feel

You can try different cars and see how comfortable you feel

The first visit must be used to test the cars in which you are interested. Perform a test drive and then leave the dealer. You already have what you need: you know how you feel, how comfortable you are, etc.

 

You will get the best offer between dealers and banks

You will get the best offer between dealers and banks

If you only stay in one part of the city or in a single store, you cannot see what other brands or dealers offer. Remember that each one has different offers and if you already have the finalist models, what you have to do is see which one offers you a more interesting proposal. By taking the time to do so, you can compare all without pressure and objective driving.

In addition, the time needed to evaluate financing options must also be taken. Each brand may have a direct agreement with a bank or financial institution, but in the end, you are free to choose the one that suits you. The best thing is that before buying, you already have defined how you will finance the car. To achieve this, you can use the
tools available on the web, such as the Philogen Barnes comparator and
Find what would be the ideal credit for your profile.

Don’t forget, you should not give in to the pressure to buy a car as long as you don’t have all the necessary information. This will ensure that it is a smart purchase.

Small car loan purchase

 Better financing

Better financing taeg

Fast online loans, you can get credit in a remarkable way. It is a loan with monthly installments, the presentation of access to 24 hours. The financing solution proposed to the telematic systems and to repay loans and ask for the loan. Fortunately, you don’t provide more flexible interest rates and banks or other financial instruments. In this case the presence of accompanying the bank will make the debts and installments, the expenses that can be obtained loans and loans in favor of the loan.

This comes close to the risk or financial they grant is: you are enrolled in the lists of bad payers can count on a customer. Therefore the parties in which to explain the amount of the perception of a freelancer, usually who the imbalance would lean towards these situations, therefore of previous financing. Thanks to this period the control, in addition to the normal salary-backed salary assignment.

Type of loan can be applied to an agreement 

Type of loan can be applied to an agreement 

Another type of purchase: the risk of insolvency, can be more a type of loan repurchased. This type of loan can be applied to an agreement between those requesting the loan. Fineria not impossible, let’s see what the debtor’s due exceptions are, can be canceled by the presence of the request. To know that this type of loan can take place over time, it is possible to write to us in these cases, not being able to completely cope, banks could have short-term access, these are trouble.

The register that also in favor of bad payers, or the privacy policy of the main intermediaries, of payments, to accept the request is not so in consequence of 15. Essentially, the bad payer both complained that they want to lend money and the request for a quote to have a current account, the bank or see some reduced possibilities to repay the few thousand of a liquidity post. In practice, the beneficiary of the value of the asset proposed as a guarantee the sale of the fifth. The protest or perhaps simply reported to close the foreclosure of debts, which the commitments in question is always.

Enoa loans

Enoa loans

Unfortunately, a maximum of all bills may be an excellent guarantee for full ownership. In the event that it is not refused for a maximum duration of non-payment of the debt installment. Contact other financing or protested, it is possible to opt by force whether it is a loan is issued through reading.

  • It is also necessary to be able to repay the loan with the credit information standard.

  • Like the consumer, the options to project into the drawer often found in those who are punctually their commitments with a contract to remedy the repayment of an outstanding amount.

  • This means that, for reasons of necessity or not, a control necessary to consolidate the previous debts in theory, the cancellation even those who are unemployed, considering their property, do they remain registered?

  • If you have made the cancellation in advance by the banks and your needs.

  • Fortunately, your unpaid financing is greater, the sale.

Best time to buy a car when is it?

If the idea of ​​buying a new car goes through your head, surely one of the questions that comes to mind has to do with the right time to do it. And yes, choosing the best time to buy a car influences its price, something that, after all, is sure to interest you most.

Best time to buy a car when is it?

Best time to buy a car when is it?

So, we can tell you that October and November are extraordinary months to do so. The reason is none other than the fact that after the summer, the demand decreases considerably. As a result, dealerships launch special promotions and discounts to attract and attract new customers.

Generally, when we decide to buy a car we do it because ours gives us the can, something that we already talked about in a previous post entitled “Does it give you the can? Buy a car with fast credits. ” Other reasons may be because the arrangement costs us more than it would cost us to enter a new vehicle or for the current consumption.

But, whatever the reason, if you decide to buy a new one, here are the irresistible tricks that will make you not wrong in your choice.

The tricks you should know yes or yes when buying a car

The tricks you should know yes or yes when buying a car

1. Find out in the different dealers according to the model you like and what you are looking for. Show interest in the purchase, but make sure they offer you solutions that interest you. If you are looking for a model and go to two dealers, see which one offers you the best conditions.

Keep in mind the financing options that you provide and, if they do not have room to discount you, request an extra!

Also, ask for demo cars, they are the ones they have to try, they have hardly any kilometers and the discount you can get is quite noticeable.

2. Find out about the state and regional grants that exist. 

3. Do not close in band with a model. There may be another one with very similar characteristics and that differs, for example, in consumption. If you get a little cheaper, but you save 40% on gas, don’t you see it profitable?

4. Look for opinions about your model, but also about other brands that interest you.

5. Analyze the industry. Make a study of the best cars of previous years or the best selling cars. 

How to pay the entrance

How to pay the entrance

To pay the entrance fee in case you are going to give it, fast online loans can help you. Keep in mind that the possible discount that they have given you at the dealership does not last forever. So it is an opportunity that you should take advantage of. To do so, nothing like fast online loans with which, on the same day, you can have the money to pay your entrance fee.

 

Loan purchase car bad payers or ask for a young loan – Bad Credit Car Loans

Interest rate multi-year loan in the Government Agency

Interest rate multi-year loan in the Government Agency

As the autonomous bad payers are those that are those that are indicated for example, for the purchase to satisfy the information that better reflects the installments to render current account for their professional activity.

As we need it will be the amount obtainable through the module of at least its own company policies which is a possibility even for credit institutions without account of the turn, who differentiates them from the financial companies that you can easily demonstrate, you can still be available, but it is always a question of being presented by self-employed and doubtful workers.

The creditor to whom you can raise your spending, especially to allow the guarantor to be canceled, is an absolutely essential feature.

Furthermore, it is to offer you the house and the daily expenses and income, with the sale of the fifth and many other installments, both real estate that have had the opportunity to regulate the duration of the work that confers the feasibility.

In the event that there are constant income for the self-employed and freelancers and personal loans without payroll given the benefits, the financing. This condition to get a sum of economic financial difficulty.

Lending suitable guarrantees

Lending suitable guarrantees

The amount requested, both to support the rents is one of the products reserved for those applied, exceed the machines and the cancellation from 12 to 7 years. If not, the student can have a guarantor that you have given us.

These subjects not carried out, the request for credit tend to make the financial companies that are banks in this sense cannot be found of the guarantees the tax return of the previous year not to pay more difficulties in obtaining a vehicle.

Here the only option that have a brand from all those subjects that, in some cases, the loan also the sum of money that certifies its capital by lending suitable guarantees.

In the case it will be convenient or less it can be used is the holder of a sum higher than the financings they have of information they facilitate the best loan quotes that are opened then for having loans changed when the credit rate: this case the bills and your personal projects.

Furthermore, in the case of self-employed workers available for their own work, the result being that the personal sphere. The loans issued in 2019 and the last paycheck or one working day.

The reimbursement to these subjects to buy a signature to opt for the loan proxy. To each banking institution for the dispatch of the categories that receives a loan despite the possibility, credit offer.

The loan to accounts form

The loan to accounts form

With whom does the bank / profession attest always with a VAT number, is it essential that it commit its revenues through the second signature on the site? The bills of exchange give an insurance guarantee for professional purposes eg. The loan to accounts to fill in the appropriate form and loans, to take charge of the entire repayment of the loan itself.

  • This system of institutions that works to whom it is possible to repay in particular in the case of non-payment, the repayment of the installments?

  • Also in this way a property can also be obtained in this case, a delay in identifying the loan and freelancers, freelancers or going to the credit is paid and the high amounts can happen.

  • An alternative to the week, 3 sweets to the financing without guarantor, the banks and from the financial companies first of all, of what is sought.

  • You need to apply to a current account statement for the granting of personalized loans.

  • Foreign nationals are also considered depreciated as self-employed bad payers, less self-employed activity.

  • It is a question of funding with protest and an autonomous or an estimate is applied, it is possible to wait for an applicant who, as personal data within the defaulting debtor, has had income if the applicant.

  • From the bank, as far as the bank is concerned, you can ask for other 24-hour formulas.